A new study published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology finds that women are more likely to be the target of sexist remarks and that men are more prone to being the victim of such comments than women are.
In the study, researchers asked women and men to answer two questions about how they feel about the way they were treated by a partner over the course of a year.
Both women and people of color were more likely than their white counterparts to say that they felt “treated badly” or “not treated well” in a romantic relationship.
“The results support a common belief that women experience higher levels of victimization from partners than men, yet these perceptions were not reflected in our findings,” wrote lead author Shira P. Fuchs and colleagues.
“When we controlled for social desirability, we found that the negative effects of partner treatment were greatest for white women, and the effects were strongest for white men.”
The study was based on responses from 1,300 participants who were surveyed between November 2015 and February 2016.
The participants were surveyed about how often they experienced verbal or nonverbal verbal hostility or abuse from their partners.
A separate study of 1,000 college students also found that white men were more prone than their black counterparts to feel threatened or insulted.
In general, men and women felt more comfortable expressing anger toward their partners than against people of the opposite sex, the researchers wrote.
However, the study found that both women and white men reported feeling more threatened by their partners’ perceived sexual advances than by their own physical or emotional actions.
The researchers also found a strong correlation between feeling threatened by a sexual partner and being verbally or nonverbally abusive to that person.
The study also found “positive effects of both partners on perceived romantic and sexual quality of life,” including feelings of well-being, well-compensated work, and higher levels, among other things.
“It’s a really good result,” said Dr. Scott B. Kincaid, director of the Center for Family Studies at New York University’s Langone Medical Center.
“I think we’re seeing a change in how women and non-white people experience intimate partner violence.
Women are not seen as victims, and they’re not viewed as the ones who are the victims.”
In fact, “the women are getting hurt,” he said.
In other words, women are being told to feel safer.
“They’re being told not to feel unsafe and that they’re going to be protected and that it’s not that serious.
And that just isn’t the case,” he added.
“There’s a very strong belief that [women] are the ones to blame.”
The researchers found that women who reported experiencing “very severe” physical abuse from a partner were also less likely to report feelings of safety in their relationships.
The authors also found women who were subjected to physical and/or sexual violence by their partner were less likely than women who experienced no violence to report feeling “relieved, satisfied, or positive” about their relationships with their partner.
Additionally, the authors found that men who experienced severe violence were more often than women to report being physically or sexually abused by their romantic partners.
The research was based in part on responses to the National Survey of Families and Households, a nationally representative survey of American households conducted by the Pew Research Center in 2016.
“This is an interesting study that addresses the issue of victimhood and how people are perceived by others,” said David L. Buss, a clinical psychologist at the University of Texas at Austin.
“For me, it really is the first step in identifying the root cause of the problem of victimisation, which is the notion that there is something inherently wrong with men that is causing them to be victims.
If they’re the ones that are being attacked and the people they are attacking are women, then it’s their fault.
That is not an accurate view of reality.
It’s a false view of the world.”
The authors wrote that they hope the study will provide “a starting point for understanding the extent of the gender-based violence problem and the ways that we can address it.”